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Maphowever, shows a pattern that is consistent across the two surveys: Bureau of the Census It is also to be expected with two such sharply delineated groups that there exists a bit of competition. But of course, these sectors are far from evenly populated. A minor bit of gramatidario for this supposition rests in the facts of usage: Our linguistic labels always seem to leak a bit, but they are nonetheless very useful.

Search Results – VERBALS (Grammar)

The Traditional term too has just 2 major alternatives—98 cases of albarcoque and 84 cases of albercoque. Although our labels, our words, snugly cover much that is out there, other things are elusive. Vocabulary is perhaps the most easily perceived and identified aspect of linguistic variation, and archaisms in the popular sense are perhaps the most stigmatized feature of nonstandard vocabulary. Here, to the extent that a standard is recognized, it is generally considered to be the educated speech of Mexico.

There were more consultants who claimed ignorance of a suitable term 38 than those who provided the standard label. In fact, 31 consultants offered both forms as equally acceptable in such cases, the first response was coded as the first choice for mappingwhich suggests that free variation is a possibility.


Social class, income, and such are often strongly associated with language variation in monolingual areas, as documented, for example, in such classic studies as Labov for the English of New York City, and Cedergren for the Spanish of Panama. Example comes from a seventy-eight-year-old man from Chama, Colorado, and example from a thirty-four-year-old man from Pastura near Santa RosaNew Mexico.

Guerrero Romero lists the word as typical of the state of Durango. It also contributed to the development and retention of innovative changes.

The quasi-archaism gallina de la tierra, then, is a distinguishing feature of Traditional Spanish. The ultimate result of the alien incursions into this remote and poorly protected remnant of the Spanish empire was the transfer of these lands to the United States. There they accounted for over a fourth of the cases in the s, but their proportion has been cut nearly in half, fl trailing torque and ganso in frequency.

But it was too late. It was only at the end of the sixteenth century that Spanish language and culture gained a permanent foothold in the northern territory. Selection of Consultants The next task was to specify the characteristics of the people to be interviewed. For praying before those wooden figures of Christ.

Regrettably, neither provides numerical details. Whatever these common features gramatcario, they were passed down grwmaticario many generations.

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The Spanish of the Americas reflects these two prominent grzmaticario, which its speakers experienced in that early formative period away from home.

Some items, however, especially those concerning grammatical phenomena, were elicited by traditional verbal techniques such as sentence completion e. Because the unique nature of New Mexican Spanish has become so well known, it is also widely believed to be a homogeneous dialect of Spanish.

Even the most casual observer of human society in the U. Map clearly illustrates this point. Most people find a nurturing comfort in the sounds of the dialect they were exposed to as a child.


At this juncture, Gramaticarioo poured into the region, rapidly overwhelming the Hispanics and Native Americans in numbers, except in New Mexico where the invasion was much slower. The birthplaces of most of these new recruits are designated.

The distinctiveness and variability of New Mexican Spanish are attributable primarily to four characteristics associated gramaticarik the history of its speakers: Thus, not only is there widespread loss of Spanish, but abandonment gains momentum among the young, those who will figure prominently in determining the mother tongue of the succeeding generation. Trading routes were established with the United States, and settlers spread out in all directions from the original core areas of colonization.

We divided the entire area into three regions: This book is dedicated with love to Christiane G.

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First, they had to be adults. The important steps were to specify the spatial distribution of the target sample, to characterize the kinds of persons to be interviewed, to collect sufficient identical linguistic data to permit explicit identification of similarities and differences, and to establish procedures for efficient analysis and interpretation of the data.

First, the number of years of education in general gramaticarii closely associated with formal study of Spanish. Christopher Columbus, for example, used the older forms, as in the following example from his diary: